Cigarette smoking for weight loss — wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Though smoking is widely discouraged by public health professionals for its countless negative health consequences, nicotine may be an appetite suppressant. 2 Nicotine could reduce appetite and influence an individual s eating habits. A study on nicotine s effects on appetite demonstrated that net effects of nicotine include elevated blood pressure, heart rate, and gastric motility while eliciting a sustained decrease in food intake. Autonomic, sensory, and enteric neurons each constitute potentially important loci for nicotine mediated changes in feeding behavior. 3 Thus the cultural associations between smoking and weight control in part reflect the body s physiological reactions to nicotine.

Nicotine gum has similar effects to cigarettes in terms of appetite suppression, and there are some people who do not smoke, but use nicotine gum for the purpose of weight control or weight loss.

Nicotine can also lower insulin levels in a person s bloodstream, which can reduce cravings for sugary foods. 4 Furthermore, nicotine triggered effects of adrenaline on the stomach s musculature lead to temporary feelings of subsided hunger. 5 Other studies have shown that smokers expend more calories while engaged in activity, which echo conclusions that smokers experience heightened metabolic rates. 6 Also worth noting are the diuretic properties of nicotine, which causes lower calcium levels in the blood.

There is much controversy concerning whether smokers are actually thinner than nonsmokers. 2 Some studies have shown that smokers including long term and current smokers weigh less than nonsmokers, and gain less weight over time. 7 Conversely, certain longitudinal studies have not shown correlation between weight loss and smoking at least among young persons. 8 Accordingly, while the connection between nicotine and appetite suppression, as well as other physiological responses to nicotine consumption, has been established, whether these chemical and biological reactions translate to smokers being thinner than nonsmokers (at least concerning certain age groups), is still debated. Age may act as a compounding factor in some of these studies. Essentially, a causal relationship has not been explicitly established between physiological effects of nicotine and epidemiological findings about weight among smokers and nonsmokers.

Smoking and perceptions of weight control among adolescents edit

While most adults do not smoke for weight control, 9 studies have shown that associations between tobacco use, being thin and desire for weight control do influence adolescents in terms of smoking behavior. Research demonstrates that adolescent girls that strongly value being thin are more likely to initiate smoking. 10 Additionally, girls already engaged in risky behavior for weight control are at increased odds to begin smoking as well. 11

Further research needs to examine trends in ethnicity concerning women and smoking for weight control. So far, studies have shown that young white women may be more prone to use cigarettes to manage their weight. Advertisements for particular brands and types of cigarettes seem target this demographic accordingly.

Several studies have been conducted over the past decade examining this issue in depth. 12 13 14 15 While it has generally been found that white females are more apt to smoke to lose weight, one study found that smoking to lose or control weight is not limited to white females, but is prevalent across racial and gender boundaries. 16 Within all racial groups, it was found that weight concerns and negative body perceptions were a significant factor in an adolescent’s decision to smoke. However, it should be noted that the relationship between weight and smoking amongst young men was only statistically significant in white or mixed race groups.

In the past, studies have shown that adolescent girls do consider weight loss or weight control to be one of the positive values of smoking. Overall, young women and girls concerned about weight control, particularly those already using unhealthy weight control techniques, are at a higher risk of smoking. 17

History of cigarette smoking for weight loss in advertising edit

It was not always socially acceptable for women to smoke cigarettes or use tobacco in public. However, over the course of about fifty years, the tobacco industry would change societal attitudes through the conduits of advertising and public relations, transforming tobacco use into a desirable pastime for female consumer in both the United States and abroad.

Pre 1920s edit

Prior to the 1920s, smoking was largely a male pastime and was thought of as a taboo act for women to participate in. During the 19th century, smoking and cigarettes were commonly associated with loose morals and sexual promiscuity. 18 A common prop in Victorian erotic pornography, cigarettes even came to be thought of as an occupational prop of prostitutes and sex workers. Even into the early 20th century, women faced possible arrest if they were caught smoking in public.

1920 1968 edit

During the first decade of the twentieth century, women would begin experience upward socioeconomic mobility with the American women s rights movement as they gained new civil liberties. By the outbreak of World War I, as they experienced growing responsibility and freedom on the home front, an increasing number of women were using cigarettes as a tool to challenge traditional ideas about female behavior. However, it would ultimately be the tobacco industry s powerful marketing influence that would turn the cigarette from a social liability into an accepted and desirable commodity for women to openly indulge in. However, many question whether or not the cigarette would have become so ubiquitous among women if the tobacco industry had not seized on the liberating social climate of the 1920s and 30s to exploit the ideas of emancipation and power in order to recruit the untapped female market. 19

Targeting women’s waistlines edit

The President of the American Tobacco Company, Percival Hill, was one of the first tobacco executives to seek out the women s market. Noting the 1920s penchant for bobbed hair cuts, short skirts and slender figures, Mr. Hill saw the potential in selling cigarettes as an appetite suppressant so that women could achieve the decade s enviably small waistlines. 19

«Reach for a Lucky» edit

Created by Albert Lasker for Mr. Hill and Lucky Strike, the Reach for a Lucky campaign is one of the most successful, albeit controversial advertising campaigns in the history of modern advertising. 20 Inspired by other campaigns that offered male consumers a reason why they should smoke a given brand (i.e. the Lucky Strike It s Toasted campaign), Lasker sought to give the female market a reason to smoke as well.

Borrowing from the 19th century slogan of Lydia Pinkham s Vegetable Compound, Reach for a Vegetable, that was marketed towards women for the alleviation of menstrual discomfort, Lasker and Lucky Strike launched the Reach for a Lucky Instead of a Sweet campaign in 1925, followed by For a Slender Figure Reach for a Lucky Instead of a Sweet in 1928. 21 The print advertisement was disseminated by Edward Bernays throughout the fashion industry in numerous fashion magazines and daily newspapers featuring slender Parisian models and proclaiming the dangers of sugar consumption. 22 Famously, Amelia Earhart would also serve as a spokeswoman for the Reach for a Lucky campaign.

Early on, the print advertisements simply featured an attractive woman with any of the variations of the slogan above or underneath her, accompanied by a rendering of the Lucky Strike Box. Later, the advertisements would make a more pointed statement about weight gain, featuring either a man or a woman in profile view with his or her noticeably fatter shadow silhouette behind. While these early advertisements would focus on both men and women, later variations would target women specifically.

In The Cigarette Century, Allen Brandt explains that the
campaign was revolutionary in its pointed targeting of female consumers as well as in its aggressive marketing strategy that positioned it in direct opposition with candy manufacturers. 23 Shortly after the campaign was released, the National Confectioners Association fired back at Lucky Strike, threatening legal action and publishing anti cigarette literature that asserted the importance of candy in a balanced, healthy diet. 24 The dispute between Lucky Strike and the National Confectioners Association ultimately drew the attention of the Federal Trade Commission who ordered Lucky Strike to relinquish all dietary claims for Luckies in its advertising. 24

Importantly, this campaign would serve to create a significant association between cigarettes and the feminine values of style, beauty and slimness. Moreover, Allen Brandt writes that the campaign ultimately promoted a product and a behavior specific and appealing social meanings of glamour, beauty, autonomy, and equality that would come to be synonymous in future cigarette advertising campaigns targeting female consumers. 25 Lucky Strike s message was highly effective, raising the company s market share by more than 200% and making it the most profitable cigarette brand for two years running. 19

«Torches of Freedom» edit

After the Reach for a Lucky Campaign, Lucky Strike sought to forever change smoking taboos by encouraging women to smoke openly in public. In an infamous publicity stunt, Edward Bernays hired several young, attractive women to march in the Easter Sunday parade in New York brandishing their torches of freedom their Lucky Strike cigarettes. While this campaign did not market cigarettes as weight loss devices, it set the precedent for the new trends in niche marketing that would come to shape the future ways in which the industry would posit new types of cigarettes as weight loss aids. Moreover, it would forever change the public s thoughts on women smoking, transforming the act from a transgressive one into a normalized feminine behavior.

1968 present edit

In 1964, the Surgeon General of the United States released the Surgeon General s Advisory Committee Report on Smoking and Health. This report lead to the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act in 1965, which would mandate that all cigarette packs display warning labels and would change the ways that the tobacco industry would reach consumers via advertising. In April 1964, with Federal Trade Commission statutes pending, the tobacco industry would take on a program of self regulation in its advertising. This program would become known as the Cigarette Advertising Code, and as Allen Brandt explains, the program

promised to ban all cigarette advertising aimed at those under twenty one to ban all unproven health claims and to ban the virility theme. It also assured that models under twenty five years of age would not be used in tobacco ads, nor would testimonials by entertainers or athletes be allowed. Finally, the code prohibited ads depicting smoking as essential to social prominence, distinction, success or sexual attraction.’ 26

With these regulations in place, the tobacco industry could no longer directly market cigarettes to women as weight loss aids like they had in the past. Rather, they would come to rely upon more subversive forms of marketing to target women s concerns with weight management.

Virginia Slims edit

In 1968, shortly after the enactment of the Cigarette Advertising Code, Philip Morris introduced a new brand of cigarettes called Virginia Slims. Following in the footsteps of Lucky Strike, Virginia Slims were marketed specifically to young, affluent, and independent women with the tagline created by the advertising agency, Leo Burnett, You ve Come a Long Way Baby, referencing the history of women s liberation. With a colorful, pastel package and female oriented print advertising featuring beautiful and elegant women, Philip Morris sought to create a cigarette that embodied women s concerns with glamour, style and body image. Moreover, the brand created rift in the market that differentiated between men s and women s cigarettes.

But perhaps most importantly, Virginia Slims appeal to women s ideals about slimness in their name Virginia Slims a key value that was not lost on consumers. In The Cigarette Century, Allen Brandt recounts United States Supreme Court case Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc., in which habitual tobacco user, Rose Cipollone, filed suit against Liggett and Myers, Lorillard and Philip Morris in five separate tort cases, citing their cigarettes as the cause of her cancer. 27 During her deposition, Cipollone recounted her smoking history, noting that she switched to Virginia Slims in 1968 because female centered marking appealed to her. Brandt writes that Cipollone described the cigarettes as the first cigarette for women slimmer for a woman s slimmer hands and packed in a slim purse pack. 28

While Federal Trade Commission regulations prohibited brands from claiming any health benefits like weight loss, Virginia Slims appeal to women s concerns with aesthetic slimness with their elongated shape and narrow circumference. While traditional cigarettes are 84mm in length, Virginia Slims come in both 100 and 120mm lengths that give the cigarette a more dainty or elegant appearance. Moreover, with a 23mm circumference, slim cigarettes are said to produce less smoke than traditional cigarettes.

Virginia Slims and athleticism edit

Cigarettes have a long tradition of being coupled with athletics, health and fitness. As early as the mid to late 19th century, Bull Durham cigarettes were the official sponsors of professional baseball, horse racing and golf, and by the 1950s, Camel commonly used sports imagery in their print advertisements.

Thus, it was not unheard of when Virginia Slims sponsored the Women’s Tennis Association in 1970, then known as the Virginia Slims Circuit . With this prominent sponsorship came a whole slew of advertisements that featured tennis greats like Billie Jean King and Rosemary Casals alongside the Virginia Slims logo.

Other Virginia Slims advertisements feature slender women in varying states of activity (dancing, running, ice skating, etc.) thus promoting a general attitude of health and fitness.

New gender issues edit

A new area of study examines the ways in which tobacco companies are targeting the gay community through advertising. 29 Like early niche advertisements that appealed to female consumers, gay tobacco advertisements draw on themes of virility and body image, although it is unclear if gay men tend to smoke to control weight. While the tobacco industry s marketing of the gay community is legal, many within the community have expressed disapproval of the industry s pointed tactics. 30

Smoking cessation edit

Weight gain as a side effect of smoking cessation remains a major aspect of smoking and weight control. People can be discouraged by weight gain experienced while quitting smoking. Weight gain is a common experience during smoking cessation, with roughly 75% of smokers gaining weight after quitting. 31 As nicotine is an appetite suppressant and smokers expend more energy, weight gain due to smoking cessation is generally attributed to increased caloric intake and a slowed metabolic rate.

Weight gain can be a deterrent in the smoking cessation process, even if many smokers did not smoke for weight control purposes. 32 Those in the process of quitting smoking are recommended to follow a healthy diet and to exercise regularly. 33 Most quitting advice encourages people to not be discouraged should they experience weight gain while quitting smoking, as the health benefits of quitting almost always exceed the costs of weight gain. Studies have shown that weight gain during the smoking cessation process can often be lost eventually through diet and exercise.

References edit

Illicit cigarette trade — wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Illicit cigarettes continue to dominate in Malaysia, where 34.5% of all cigarettes (ITIC 2013), 5 approximately 7.9 billion sticks, sold were illicit. Illicit trade remains prevalent in Malaysia due to its long coast lines, which allow for shipments to be sent from neighbouring nations, such as kreteks from Indonesia, into the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak (Rejab and Zain 2006). 6 Smugglers have also become increasingly more efficient in unloading, storing, and distributing smuggled cigarettes quickly in local villages whilst avoiding Customs officers. In Lahad Datu (Sabah), locals have become part of the problem, as they frequently purchase illicit cigarettes from illegal immigrants from the Philippines and Indonesia who openly pedal these goods out in the open in a thriving flea market full of smuggled illicit goods (New Straits Times 2013). 7 Lax law enforcement further facilitates the prevalence of illicit trade and smuggled goods in this area, as the sale of these illicit goods are responsible for sustaining the livelihood of these illegal immigrants. The low salaries of responsible law enforcement units are highlighted as a contributing factor to the lack of smuggled cigarette seizures. Rejab and Zain (2006) posit cigarette smugglers are notified before raids are conducted by Insiders in law enforcement, providing ample time to conceal shipments of illicit cigarettes. With less than 2% of all shipment containers checked upon arrival at ports (due to high volumes of containers), and low penalties for illicit smuggling, this issue will remain prevalent in Malaysia (and other countries with poor border control) as illicit cigarette smuggling continues to be seen as a lucrative, relatively low risk activity.

The implementation of the Plain Packaging Act of tobacco products in 2012 in Australia has sparked debate on its efficacy on reducing the incidence of smoking among youth. While some studies conclude that plain packaging will make cigarettes less attractive to youth, the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) has lobbied against the sale of plain packaged cigarettes citing lack of evidence. 8 Tobacco organisations instead posit plain packaging will ease the ability of illegal tobacco manufacturers to replicate legitimate products resulting in higher incidences of illicit trade. While no other countries have implemented plain packaging yet, time will tell if this move will have positive or negative consequences in reducing youth and adult smoking. 9

Links to organized crime edit

Numerous reports, 10 1 11 have forged links between the illegal tobacco trade and organised crime groups, whom are attracted by high consumer demand, high potential profits, and relatively low potential penalties. In Malaysia, first time offence results in up to RM100,000 fine and a 3 year sentence with a RM200,000 fine and 6 year jail sentence for subsequent offences. Organised crime syndicates garner wide reach through diverse distribution channels in the form of small retailers and street vendors. While retailers may be charged in court if found to be in possession of cigarettes, it has been widely assumed that crime syndicates pay these fines in order to maintain cooperation with retailers, and sustain their distribution network. Beyond these traditional distribution channels, the World Customs Organization (2012) highlights that the resale of tobacco products on the Internet is being actively developed enabling greater reach, more discretion, and lesser chances of being caught. In 2012, French police disrupted this trend through deleting domain names of online trading sites selling tobacco products (WCO 2012).

Evidence suggests tobacco smuggling operations have been linked to terrorist organisations such as Hamas and Hezbollah, which utilize these profits to finance terrorism around the world. 12 13 since the 1980s. The WCO Illicit Trade Report 2012 highlights the illicit tobacco trade represents a good opportunity for organized crime groups and/or terrorists to generate large sums of criminal profits. Billingslea (2004) 14 wrote, terrorist groups work with organized crime groups as well as International drug trafficking organisations due to their established trafficking routes and business contacts for the transfer of commodity for profit . He adds, known and suspected Hezbollah and Hamas members have established front companies and legitimate businesses in the cigarette trade in Central and South America. The IRA (Irish Republican Army) was one of the first groups to begin using cigarettes to fund their activities. Police estimate that the IRA made $100million in the past 5 years from trafficking illicit cigarettes. In the Middle East, the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) has known involvement in the trafficking of contraband cigarettes and tax stamps. The EU Commission report that the PKK has been smuggling American cigarettes into Iraq, which were then controlled by Saddam Hussein s son. The combined efforts from cigarette and oil smuggling was reported to have made Saddam Hussein as much as $2.7billion annually after 1991.

Most recently, 16 Palestinian men arrested due to a cigarette smuggling scheme in New York were found to have some ties to convicted terrorists. One criminal in particular, had known financial ties to Omar Abdel Rahman, a cleric serving a life sentence for a conspiracy to blow up New York City landmarks. Others arrested also had ties to a top Hamas official.

Similarly in Hong Kong, police arrested 1,200 individuals from a wide range of gangs for drug trafficking, illegal possession of arms, and contraband cigarettes. Operation Thunderbolt, which aims to target triads in Hong Kong and neighboring provinces, has been successful in infiltrating various branches of the gang s operational networks.

The World Customs Organisation (2013) notes that while the number of illegal cigarette seizures has increased globally, the number of smuggling routes and channels continue to diversify accordingly. In Ireland, four men were recently caught transporting 9 million cigarettes with a retail value of 4.3 million, which arrived via sea freight from Malaysia. Police believe this shipment was destined for Ireland s largest smuggling gangs, who have also been involved in armed robberies and burglaries. In the United Kingdom, cigarette smuggling has become so increasingly profitable that smuggling syndicates have turned to bribing young women to smuggle cigarettes in exchange for free summer holidays. UK border officials have revealed that close to 50 million cigarettes are seized each month from girls as young as 15, who were given flights to Spain, accommodation and pocket money. Cigarette smuggling has since become one of Europe s fastest growing forms of organized crime, 15 and has been responsible for funding larger operations such as drug smuggling or people trafficking. South Africa faces similar problems with cigarette smuggling, as police report the sale of illegal cigarettes is bigger than drugs in South Africa. 16

Costs of illicit trade edit

The global scale of the illegal cigarette trade has reached an all time high, as governments are estimated to lose over USD50 billion 17 in global government revenues each year. A Euromonitor (2011) report estimates that there are 360 billion cigarettes consumed annually (excluding China), which accounts for 10% of the global market. Euromonitor (2013) reports black market sales of cigarettes rose for the 6th year in a row, although cigarette consumption in the EU fell by 5.7% in 2012 resulting in over 12 billion Euros in lost tax revenue. Illicit cigarette trade not only deprives the government of a key source of tax revenue, but also creates an imbalance in the market for legitimate industry players who operate within stringent regulations. In Asia Pacific (and globally) Malaysia ranks as the country with the highest share (45%) of illicit cigarettes in the total market, followed by Hong Kong (35%), and Pakistan (26.7%) in the Asian continent. 18 Although illegal cigarettes have been associated with low income groups
, its low price and accessibility also makes it attractive to smokers in general due to increasing tobacco taxes, and affordable for youths who have lower disposable income. Brunei illustrates a unique case globally, where 89.8%, or 315.2 million of cigarettes consumed are illicit (ITIC 2013). After the government s 339% excise duty application in 2010, cigarette prices hit $6.1 per pack, one of the highest in the Asia Pacific after Singapore and Australia. This resulted in the withdrawal of major international tobacco firms, and a tax loss of $63 million due to the proliferating illicit Atlas (2013) estimates that if illicit trade was eliminated, $31.3 billion in tax revenue would be gained, and 164,000 premature deaths would be avoided annually due to higher average cigarette prices. The WCO Illicit Trade Report 2012 recommends placing greater importance on information collection and sharing on a national and International level in order to develop strategies to respond to this threat.

Societal impacts of illicit trade edit Youth smoking edit

Costs of illicit trade also go beyond purely financial measures, with repercussions such as encouraging youth uptake of smoking, and increasing health risks for consumers, as illegal cigarettes are not bound by product and ingredient checks. Despite industry and government efforts to implement ID checks for tobacco sales to regulate availability, the prominence of illicit cigarette trade facilitates cigarette affordability for youth 19 with its lower than market price, and provision of easy channels for purchase in the form of small retailers and online. Internet sites have since become a core channel of distribution as it allows the selling and shipping of small quantities of cigarettes undetected by Customs Officials. 3 Numerous studies 20 3 also draw a direct link between the availability of cheap illicit cigarettes and the high youth smoking rates. In Canada, illegal cigarettes accounted for 17.5% of all cigarettes smoked by adolescents (Callaghan et al. 2009), with greater prevalence in Toronto and Quebec, where 22% of Canadian high school students regularly smoke illegal cigarettes (Callaghan et al. 2009). 21 The study adds illegal cigarettes were responsible for providing an accessible alternative to quitting, 22 and for youth in particular, encourages initiation and continuation of smoking over the long term. 21

Dangerous additives edit

The ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) warns counterfeit cigarettes were found to contain unsanitary ingredients (such as human feces, dead flies and mold), as well as a higher dosage of lethal substances in excess of legitimate cigarettes. Illicit cigarettes seized in Canada and the United Kingdom were found to contain five times more cadmium, six times as much lead, 160% more tar, and 133% more carbon dioxide. 4 Consumers are warned to take caution and avoid the temptation to save money by purchasing illegal cigarettes as it poses greater health risks compared to legal cigarettes.

Identifying illicit cigarettes edit

Below are some common indicators of illicit cigarette packs

  • The absence of pictorial health warnings
  • Poor detailing on cigarettes (print, spelling errors, inconsistent lettering)
  • Packs without domestic tax stamps or security marks
  • Packs with non domestic tax stamps
  • Unlisted importer or manufacturer
  • Unregistered brands
  • Pack sizes with less than 20 cigarettes
  • Unusual taste
  • Cheap price (below market average)

Below are some links to some visual examples


United Kingdom


Illicit trade around the world edit

Australia (2/10/2013) Australia loses $1.1 billion due to illegal cigarettes in 2012. The country s attempts to discourage smoking through higher taxes have instead fueled the illegal cigarette industry.

Chicago, USA (28/02/2013) Increase in illicit cigarette seizures as cigarette tax goes up $1 per pack.

Hong Kong (15/08/2013) Customs officers seized 1.3million illicit cigarettes (total market value of $3.3million with a duty potential of $2.2million) in electric water heaters in an industrial building.

Hong Kong (28/08/2012) Hong Kong Police arrest 1,200 suspects on charges ranging from drug trafficking, illegal possession of arms, drugs, and contraband cigarettes.

Ireland (17/09/2013) 9 million cigarettes with an estimated retail value of 4.3 million euros were seized when 4 men were caught transporting the shipment, which arrived at Dublin Port, from Malaysia. Police believe the cigarettes were destined for one of the country s largest smuggling gangs, which have also been involved in armed robberies and burglaries.

Madrid (21/06/2013) 16,500kg (worth 2 million Euros) of shredded tobacco was seized at an illegal cigarette factory located in an abandoned building in an industrial park.

Malaysia (1/10/2013) Malaysia records RM1.9 billion loss to illegal cigarettes in 2012.

Malaysia (19/03/2013) Locals at Lahad Datu help fuel demand for illicit goods through frequent purchase of illicit cigarettes from illegal immigrants in an open illegal goods flea market.

New York, USA (17/05/2013) 16 Palestinian men arrested in a scheme that may have generated $55 million in revenue from selling illicit cigarettes.

Ukraine (19/07/2012) Ukrainian smuggling tunnel contributes to human trafficking and illicit cigarettes in Slovakia.

United Kingdom (23/08/2013) Haul of illegal tobacco and cigarettes with a shop value of 415,000 seized from 10 storage units in Derby.

Anti illicit trade edit

World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products This multilateral treaty is aimed at combatting Illegal trade in tobacco products through controlling supply chain and international cooperation. Parties commit to establishing tracking and tracing system to reduce, with aims to eradicate, illicit trade. The Protocol has been signed by representatives of all 6 WHO regions. /

Get Some Answers (United Kingdom) This website created by The North England Tackling Illicit Tobacco for Better Health Programme, aims to inform and increase awareness of illegal tobacco, its impact, and consequences. The website provides forums for discussion, link to Crime Stoppers to share information, and link to National Health Service (NHS) for individuals who want to quit smoking.

Retailers Against Smuggling (Ireland) This body was established in 2009 by Irish retailers to fight against illicit tobacco trade through raising awareness about the effects of illicit tobacco on retailers, liaising with relevant law enforcement authorities, and campaigning for legislative reform and extra law enforcement resources. /

Contraband Enforcement Strategy (Canada) The Royal Canadian Mounted Police aims to nationally reduce the availability of, and decrease the demand for contraband tobacco through working with youth to prevent involvement in crimes as an offender or victim. This published report prioritises reducing the threat of criminal terrorist activity in Canada through effectively addressing contraband activities, disrupting organized crime groups, and enhancing intelligence gathering and sharing.

Rokok Tak Sah (Malaysia) Launched by Royal Malaysian Customs, this campaign is aimed at educating retailers and the public about the penalties of buying and selling illicit cigarettes. Brochures and newspaper advertisements were deployed to raise awareness of how to identify illegal cigarettes. Customs officers also increased enforcement efforts to seize illegal cigarettes and fine retailers facilitating sales to the public. /

Don t Get Burnt (Singapore) This campaign by Singapore Customs seeks to warn the public about the dangers and stiff penalties for activities involving illicit tobacco trade. The campaign encourages citizens to report il
legal activities and educates the public about identifying illegal cigarettes through radio networks, cable television, outdoor and print advertisements, roadshows and community engagement. Efforts resulted in a 30.4% decrease in the number of illegal cigarette buyers caught.

Hong Kong United Against Illicit Tobacco (2013) This movement aims to consolidate opposition to illicit trade, educate the public to move the issue up the government s priority list, and sell the public on the idea that illicit tobacco only benefits criminals. /?page id 2&lang en

Stop Illegal Cigarettes (South Africa) This campaign, backed by the Tobacco Institute of Southern Africa, comprises tobacco industries working together to tackle illegal cigarette trade among retailers and increasing consumer awareness.

References edit