Cigarette — wikipedia

  1. C. J. Smith, T. A. Perfettia, R. Gargb et C. Hansch, IARC carcinogens reported in cigarette mainstream smoke and their calculated log P values , Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 41, Issue 6, juin 2003, p. 807 817.
  2. Tobacco Atlas, Organisation mondiale de la Sant (consult le 23 juillet 2010)
  3. Consommateurs les tats membres approuvent les mesures pr vues par la Commission pour lutter contre les incendies dus la cigarette, Commission europ enne, 29 novembre 2007 (consult le 23 juillet 2010)
  4. Voir par exemple le site mis en place cet effet par Philip Morris International (en)
  5. Selon Clive Bates, directeur de l’antenne anglaise de l’association Action on smoking and health (en) (ASH), cit sur le site de la t l vision suisse romande 1
  6. Rapport Les additifs du tabac, Clive Bates (ASH, Londres), Dr Martin Jarvis (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Londres), Dr Gregory Connolly (Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program, Boston), 1999 Version fran aise sur le site , consult e en septembre 2008.
  7. (en) Stevenson T, Proctor RN. The secret and soul of Marlboro Phillip Morris and the origins, spread, and denial of nicotine freebasing Am J Public Health. 2008 98(7) 1184 94.
  8. Tabac et d pression
  9. D pendances en tout genre
  10. The isolation of harmane and norharmane from tobacco and cigarette smoke
  11. (en) Ingebrethsen, B.J., «Aerosol studies of cigarette smoke», Rec Advan Tob Sci (1986) 12, pp. 54 142.
  12. (en) Repace JL. Exposure to Secondhand smoke in Exposure Analysis. Ott W, Steinemann AC, Wallace LA. (eds.). Taylor and Francis. Boca Raton, Floride. 2007
  13. Sant Canada, Rapports des fabricants de tabac R glements sur les rapports relatifs au tabac
  14. Smoking & Tobacco Use Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
  15. Tableaux de l’Economie Fran aise dition 2006 et INSEE Premi re n 808
  16. Michael J Thun, David M Burns, Health impact of «reduced yield» cigarettes a critical assessment of the epidemiological evidence, Tob Control 2001 10(Suppl 1) i4 i11 (Winter)
  17. «Smoking and Health A Report of the Surgeon General», Office of the Surgeon General, Public Health Service, United States, 11 janvier 1964
  18. Fleming P, Blair PS. «Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and parental smoking», Early Hum Dev. 2007 Nov 83(11) 721 5. Epub 2007 Sep 18
  19. American Legacy Foundation factsheet on lung cancer leur source (cit e) est CDC (Centers for Disease Control) The Health Consequences of Smoking A Report of the Surgeon General. 2004.
  20. Lipworth L, Tarone RE, McLaughlin JK. The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 2006 Dec 176 (6 Pt 1) 2353 8. PMID 17085101
  21. Cui Y, Miller AB, Rohan TE. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk update of a prospective cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 Dec 100(3) 293 9. PMID 16773435
  22. Calle EE, Miracle McMahill HL, Thun MJ, Heath CW. Cigarette smoking and risk of fatal breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 May 15 139(10) 1001 7. PMID 8178779
  23. Kuper H, Boffetta P, Adami HO. Tobacco use and cancer causation association by tumour type. J Intern Med. 2002 Sep 252(3) 206 24. PMID 12270001
  24. source les Communaut s europ ennes Seule fait foi la version imprim e de la l gislation europ enne telle que publi e dans les ditions papier du Journal officiel de l’Union europ enne.
  25. Kelley TF, «Polonium 210 content of mainstream cigarette smoke», Science (1965) Jul 30 149 537 8
  26. Philip Morris, Radiochemistry polonium , 15 avril 1977 (consult le 5 septembre 2008)
  27. W. Gannon, 210Po Manuscript , 30 mai 1978 (consult le 5 septembre 2008)
  28. Monique E. Muggli, Jon O. Ebbert, Channing Robertson, et Richard D. Hurt, Waking a Sleeping Giant The Tobacco Industry s Response to the Polonium 210 Issue , American Journal of Public Health 98(9) 1643 1650. (consult le 5 septembre 2008)
  29. Fumeurs si vous saviez, in Figaro Madame, 23 mai 2006, 2 , bas sur le livre du Pr G rard Dubois, «Le rideau de fum e», Le Seuil, et le film militant de Nadia Collot, «Tabac, la conspiration», 2005
  30. Robert N. Proctor,Golden Holocaust, 2011, University of California Press, Berkeley,(ISBN 978 0520270169)
  31. Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (consult le 10 ao t 2012). 79 millions de pages de documents de l’industrie du tabac. Interrogeable en ligne
  32. St phane Foucart, Les conspirateurs du tabac , Le Monde, 25 f vrier 2012 (consult le 10 ao t 2012)
  33. David Leloup, St phane Foucart, Comment le lobby du tabac a subventionn des labos fran ais , Le Monde, 31 mai 2012 (consult le 10 ao t 2012)
  34. David Leloup et St phane Foucart, Comment le lobby du tabac a subventionn des labos fran ais , sur , 1 juin 2012
  35. Source Reuters, FACTBOX Leading cigarette manufacturers by sales , 18 juillet 2007 (consult le 6 d cembre 2007)
  36. Consommation de tabac le petit record de 2008, Le , 7 janvier 2009 (consult le 2 juin 2009)
  37. Taxes sur les cigarettes en Europe, sur , Linternaute Sante (consult le 2 juin 2009)
  38. Prix du paquet de cigarettes en Europe, sur , Linternaute Sante (consult le 2 juin 2009)
  39. Chaloupka, F. et Warner, K., The Economics of Smoking, Chapitre 29 de The Handbook of Health Economics, Volume I (2000).
  40. Frank J. Chaloupka, Civil Society Monitoring of the Framework Convetnion on Tobacco Control Chap. 2, Price and Tax of Tobacco Products , 2007 (consult le 23 juillet 2010), p. 9
  41. Philip Morris International, Nos marques (consult le 23 juillet 2010)
  42. Frank J. Chaloupka, Civil Society Monitoring of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Chap. 2, Price and Tax of Tobacco Products , 2007 (consult le 23 juillet 2010), p. 12
  43. a, b et c Didier Nourrisson, Cigarette, histoire d’une allumeuse, Editions Payot, 2010, 336 p. (ISBN 2 228 90580 1)
  44. a et b Goodman, Jordan Elliot, Tobacco in history the cultures of dependence, Routledge, New York, 1993, page 97, isbn 0 415 04963 6
  45. Marc Kirsch, Le tabac l ments d histoire et de botanique. Gen se d une pid mie , La lettre du Coll ge de France, no 3, 2010, p. 11
  46. Cigare, Centre national de ressources textuelles et lexicales
  47. Cigarette, Centre national de ressources textuelles et lexicales
  48. La premi re machine rouler les cigarettes, le cigarettotype, est invent e en 1843 par Le Maire. Source Marc Kirsch, op. cit , p. 13
  49. Ouvri res dans les manufactures de tabac qui faisaient les cigarettes la main, introduisant dans des tuyaux en papier le tabac au moyen d’un tui cylindrique.
  50. Voir aussi Tabac de troupe
  51. (en) David Tucker, Tobacco An International Perspective, Euromonitor PLC, 1982, p. 109
  52. (en), David Tucker, op. cit , p. 70

Parliament adopts new eu tobacco rules

Members of the European Parliament voted today (26 February) to approve a deal reached with member states in December on new EU tobacco legislation will, controversially, tightly regulate the content and marketing of electronic cigarettes.

Today’s vote, which is expected to be rubber stamped by member states in the coming weeks, ends a long effort to revise EU tobacco rules which saw the resignation of former health commissioner John Dalli, unprecedented lobbying by tobacco companies and citizens demonstrations by so called ‘vapers’ users of electronic cigarettes.

The new legislation will require large pictorial warnings with unpleasant images covering 65% of cigarette packs. Characterising flavours including menthol will be banned.

In recent months the most controversial aspect of the revision was its effort to standardise EU regulation of new electronic cigarettes. In October members of the parliament adopted a negotiating position that called for e cigarettes to be regulated for general sale.

National governments, concerned about the unknown long term health effects, wanted them to be regulated as medicines. Member states also wanted to ban refillable cartridges over concerns about safety and nicotine content. These elements were included in the proposal put forward by the European Commission in 2012.

But MEPs, under intense pressure from e cigarette manufacturers and users who said such restrictions would kill off a valuable tool to quit smoking, refused to allow such a ban.

The compromise agreed with national governments in December, backed by MEPs today, will see e cigarettes regulated for general sale at EU level, but member states would be allowed to regulate them as medicines if they so choose. Refillable cartridges will not be banned. However member states can ban specific types of cartridges, if the ban can be justified by safety concerns.

If three member states adopt a ban on a specific cartridge, the European Commission can unilaterally impose an EU level ban, without approval by Parliament or member states. Cartridge size will be capped at 2ml.
E cigarettes will be limited to a maximum permitted nicotine concentration level of 20mg/ml, equivalent to roughly one pack of regular cigarettes.

Though the e cigarette issue became the most contested part of the legislation in its final months, the revision of the EU’s Tobacco Products Directive will mean big changes for traditional cigarettes as well.

All characterising flavours will be banned, though the menthol flavour will be given a four year derogation to 2020. Manufacturers and importers must submit reports on the use of these additives within 18 months.

Pictorial health warnings must cover 65% of both the front and back of cigarette packs. In order to address the concerns raised by manufacturers about increased ease of counterfeiting using the labels, the law will set up an EU wide tracking and tracing system to combat illicit trade of tobacco products.

Member states may ban cross border distance sales of tobacco products, for example through online purchasing. The Commission proposal to ban slim cigarettes was rejected. But perfumed ‘lipstick’ cigarettes will be banned.

Health campaign groups said they were broadly pleased with today’s result. «Today marks a genuine turning point for European tobacco control and a huge stride towards a tobacco free Europe,» said Archie Turnbull, president of the Smoke Free Partnership.» This vote will help protect young people and children across Europe, saving many lives and helping prevent young Europeans from starting to smoke.»

The Confederation of European Community Cigarette Manufacturers said the measures adopted today are «disproportionate» and are «more likely to lead to a rise in profits for criminal gangs, who sell much cheaper, unregulated products.»

«We expect diligence to be taken in allowing realistic transition
periods for member states and the industry,» said Michiel Reerink, the group’s chairman. «Due to the complexity of the numerous measures, tobacco companies, packaging manufacturers, machinery suppliers, wholesalers and retailers must imperatively be given sufficient time to comply with the Directive.